Texas made the move before Thursday's series finale against Oakland.
Outfielder Michael Choice was optioned back to Round Rock, one day after he was recalled by the Rangers.
Texas had only six relievers instead of its usual seven for Wednesday's game.
Patton is in his third stint with the Rangers. He has a 0.78 ERA in 22 appearances at Round Rock.
Choice appeared as a defensive replacement Wednesday, going 0 for 1 with a strikeout and also had a two-base error when he misplayed a ball in right field.