Dr. Richard Toussaint Jr. (TOO'-sahnt) allegedly submitted false claims during 2009 and 2010.
Prosecutors on Wednesday announced the case involving claims to Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas, United Healthcare and the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program.
Prosecutors say the 57-year-old Toussaint at times falsely represented being present for procedures when he was flying in a private jet, in another state or undergoing surgery himself.
The indictment alleges the funds were used to buy several luxury cars, including two Rolls-Royces and three Bentleys. Prosecutors plan to seek forfeiture of the vehicles if the case results in conviction.
Toussaint's attorney says his client will plead not guilty.
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