Busch edged defending series champion Kevin Harvick with a run of 193.847 mph on the high-banked 1 1/2-mile track Friday.
The Duck Commander 500 is Saturday night.
It's the second pole of the season for Busch, who also took the top qualifying spot in Fontana, California. But it's the first time he has taken the top qualifying spot in Texas, where he has three career top-10 finishes and one win.
Harvick will start on the front row in Texas for the first time after turning a lap of 193.722. Busch and Harvick, teammates with Stewart-Haas Racing, also started 1-2 in California.
Brad Keselowski was third at 193.195 mph, followed by Kasey Kahne.